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Titre de la thèse : Croyances, explication naive (spontanée) des accidents, perception du risque, perception des actions préventives et comportement en matière de sécurité des travailleurs de secteur d’hospitalier au Nigéria.
Thesis title : Beliefs, Spontaneous (naive) explanation of accidents, risk perception, perception of preventive actions and safety behavior among health care workers in Nigerian hospitals
Composition du Jury :
– Céline BAEYENS, Pr – UGA (examinatrice)
– Rémi KOUABENAN, Pr – UGA (directeur de thèse)
– Robert NGUEUTSA, MCF – Université Bourgongne Franche Comté (Examinateur)
– Christine ROLAND-LEVY, Pr – Université de Reims (Rapporteure)
– Philippe SARNIN, Pr – Université Lyon 2 (rapporteur)
This thesis aims to examine the relationship between beliefs (fatalistic, control and normative), naive explanation of accident, perception of risk, perception of preventive actions and protective behaviour. This thesis consists of two studies. The first study aims to identify the causes of accidents in Nigerian hospitals, the perceived risks, the various forms of beliefs that exist among healthcare workers towards hospital risks and accidents, the perception of preventive actions and the protective behaviour of health workers in the workplace. This study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with 45 health workers belonging to three categories, namely doctors (professionals and generalists), scientists/laboratory technicians and nurses (professionals and midwives). It appears that health care workers are faced with risks and causes of accidents that result from individual actions and external elements. In addition, fatalistic beliefs and control beliefs emerge as the types of beliefs most identified as being involved in hospital work safety in Nigeria. The second study was conducted among 611 healthcare workers using a self-reported questionnaire, to test the link between beliefs (fatalistic, control and normative), causal explanations of accident, perception of risk, perception of preventive actions and safety behaviour. Our results show that fatalistic beliefs are linked to dangerous behaviours and to a low perceived effectiveness of preventive actions in the workplace. Additionally, healthcare workers with high perceived behavioural control tend to overestimate the severity and controllability of hospital risk and perceive high effectiveness of preventive actions. Furthermore, normative beliefs are associated with high perceived likelihood and severity of hospital risk and high perceived efficacy of preventive actions. Moreover, perceiving the effectiveness of preventive actions encourages the adoption of safety behaviours. Furthermore, workers who explain accidents by external factors perceive preventive actions as ineffective. It has also been observed that the overestimation of the perceived seriousness of hospital risks leads healthcare workers to adopt safe behaviours. Interaction analysis shows that the positive relationship between internal causal explanations and perceived effectiveness of preventive actions is stronger in younger healthcare workers. Finally, the results show that the effect of control beliefs on safety behaviour is mediated by internal causal explanation of accident. In general, the results of this thesis are mainly in line with past studies in this field and contributes some enhancement to the theoretical considerations. The practical implications and targeted recommendations of this thesis indicates that several intervention strategies can improve the safety and well-being of healthcare workers in Nigerian hospitals. Among which are programs that targets reducing or changing healthcare workers fatalistic beliefs to improve workers recognition of personal contributions to accident occurrence and safety.